As explained in the Talmud (Sanhedrin 58b), they include the prohibition against theft, murder, and sexual immorality.
These are the pillars of human civilization, and are named the "Seven Laws of Noah," since all humans are descended from Noah.
The convert must believe in God and the divinity of the Torah, as well as accept upon himself to observe all 613 mitzvot (commandments) of the Torah. – as detailed in the Code of Jewish Law, the authoritative source for Jewish observance.
This means that a motor vehicle is not used on Shabbat, that cheese is eaten only with kosher supervision, that a woman uses the mikveh every month, and much much more.
Judaism presents seven mitzvot for non-Jews to observe.
It appears there are two options for you right now.
We should actively encourage them, as Rabbi Chaim did, for we can learn from their observations, eliminate our character defects, and thereby better ourselves.
try to encourage others to tell me what I might be doing that they consider wrong, and be sincerely grateful to anyone who provides constructive criticism.
Your belief needs to be based on reality -- so develop an eye for noticing sparks of potential in others. remarked that he was surprised that Rabbi Chaim's house did not have the requisite square cubit of unfinished wall space that one is to leave as a reminder of the ruin of the Temple. Even if they are not frankly offended by someone else pointing out their imperfections, they are rarely grateful for being reprimanded.
Rabbi Chaim promptly arose and scraped the paint off an area of the wall, deeply thanking the for calling his attention to this delinquency. Knowing that we might react defensively, people who note our mistakes and are in a position to rebuke us will be reluctant to provoke us.
There are two excellent books which are helpful for conversion: - "To Be A Jew" by Chaim Halevi Donin – - "Becoming a Jew" by Maurice Lamm – Also recommended are two real-life accounts of non-Jews who converted to Judaism: - "Migrant Soul" by Avi Shafran – - "The Bamboo Cradle" by Avraham Schwartzbaum – You have a special soul which is yearning to find truth.