’s largest countries, Germany encompasses a wide variety of landscapes: the tall, sheer mountains of the south; the sandy, rolling plains of the north; the forested hills of the urbanized west; and the plains of the agricultural east.
At the spiritual heart of the country is the magnificent east-central city of , historically one of Europe’s most important publishing centres.
The Central German Uplands may be divided into three main parts: a predominantly lowland country in the south, an arc of massifs and plateaus running from the age (about 250 to 200 million years old).
The pattern of valleys eroded by streams and rivers has largely given rise to the details of the present landscape.
Valley had some erosive effect, but they mainly contributed sheets of glacial deposits.
Another powerful force determining surface configuration is , or Variscan, mountains—had crossed Europe in the area of the Central German Uplands.
Yet the forces of erosion were sufficient to reduce these mountains to almost level surfaces, on which a series of secondary sedimentary rocks of .
West Germany’s rapid economic recovery in the 1950s (For in our country everything is geared to growth. In Germany it manifests itself as a landscape with a complex mixture of forested block mountains, intermediate plateaus with scarped edges, and lowland basins.
In the northern part of the country the into the Jutland peninsula of Denmark.
Coarser weathered material was carried into alluvial cones and gravel-covered river terraces, as in the Rhine Rift Valley (Rhine Graben).
The detailed morphology of Germany is significant in providing local modifications to climate, hydrology, and soils, with consequent effects on vegetation and agricultural utilization., the planed-off remnants of the former Hercynian mountains were shattered and portions thrust upward to form block mountains, with sedimentary rocks preserved between them in lowlands and plateaus.
The landscape gained some variety from past volcanic activity responsible for the eroded volcanic necks of the (Erzgebirge), where the centuries-old mining tradition still continued during the period of the German Democratic Republic before ending in the 1990s.