As al-Manṣūr chose the foremost talents of his time to serve as “poet-journalists”—men such as Ibn Darrāj al-Qaṣtallī, al-Ramādī, Ṣāʿid of Baghdad, al-Ṭalīq, and numerous others—this occasional poetry sometimes attained literary heights.
In the 10th century (“Book of Orchards”)—the first anthology of Andalusian poets.
This anthology was soon followed by one by the physician Ibn al-Kattānī.
The highest peak in Islamic literature in Spain was attained during the era of the established an embryo of an academy of belles lettres, which included the foremost Spanish intellects as well as Sicilians who emigrated from their native land before its conquest by the Normans.
In , a history of religions that was not surpassed by Western scholars until well into the 19th century.
He also was a leading exponent of the Ẓāhirī school of jurisprudence, which stressed thorough knowledge of the Qurʾān and the Hadith.
As early as the 10th century, the caliph of Córdoba, al-Ḥakam II al-Mustanṣir, imported books from the east to build a great centre of learning in his city.
His efforts bore fruit as Córdoba was graced by three great scholars in the 10th and 11th centuries—Ibn Masarrah (died 931), Maslama al-Majrīṭī (died 1008), and Kirmānī (died 1068)—all of whom were knowledgeable in philosophy, geometry, and other disciplines.
In the Naṣrid era is found the aforementioned Ibn al-Khaṭīb.
The works of the North African historians Andalusia enjoyed a great tradition in philosophy, in part as a means to compete with the dynamic culture in Baghdad and also as a result of limitations placed on philosophic inquiry in the eastern Islamic world.
Other petty kings in the peninsula endeavoured to compete with al-Muʿtamid, but they were unable to assemble a constellation of writers of comparable stature. To the era of greatest decadence, in the 13th century, belonged Abū al-Baqāʾ of Ronda and Ibn Saʿīd.
In the 14th century three court poets, Ibn al-Jayyāb, Ibn al-Khaṭīb, and Ibn Zamraq, preserved their verses by having them inscribed in the Alhambra.
The Arab mathematician Jābir ibn Aflaḥ (12th century) was also notable for his criticism of the Ptolemaic system.