Still, as Poland regained independence in the aftermath of World War I, it was the center of the European Jewish world with one of world's largest Jewish communities of over 3 million.
Antisemitism was a growing problem throughout Europe in those years, from both the political establishment and the general population.
From the founding of the Kingdom of Poland in 1025 through to the early years of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth created in 1569, Poland was the most tolerant country in Europe.
Known as paradisus judaeorum (Latin for "Paradise of the Jews"), it became a shelter for persecuted and expelled European Jewish communities and the home to the world's largest Jewish community of the time.
The first actual mention of Jews in Polish chronicles occurs in the 11th century.
It appears that Jews were then living in Gniezno, at that time the capital of the Polish kingdom of the Piast dynasty.
The contemporary Polish Jewish community is estimated to have approximately 20,000 members, The first Jews arrived in the territory of modern Poland in the 10th century.
By travelling along the trade routes leading eastwards to Kiev and Bukhara, Jewish merchants, known as Radhanites, crossed the areas of Silesia.
The history of the Jews in Poland dates back over 1000 years.
For centuries, Poland was home to the largest and most significant Jewish community in the world.
left the People's Republic of Poland for the nascent State of Israel and North or South America.
Their departure was hastened by the destruction of Jewish institutions, post-war violence and the hostility of the Communist Party to both religion and private enterprise, but also because in 1946–1947 Poland was the only Eastern Bloc country to allow free Jewish aliyah to Israel, "anti-Zionist" campaign.
Poland was the centre of Jewish culture thanks to a long period of statutory religious tolerance and social autonomy.