Such transfers will occur only when inks are freshly applied.
For example, if transfers of ink are found on several pages of a diary, it indicates that the corresponding entries on the diary were made in a single sitting, not over a longer period as suggested by the dates.
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He has been an instructor at the FBI Academy, Federal Law Enforcement Training Center, Naval Investigative Service, Air Office of Special Investigation, U.
There are four major approaches (each approach is a group of methods) used for dating inks on documents: 1.
The procedure most commonly used for the detection, isolation, and analysis of these date tags in ink dating is: The comparison between the known tag and the questioned ink being examined should focus on whether the florescent compounds are the same color in the known and questioned.
No more than three of the four tags were ever used in a given year.
The validity of documentary evidence is of paramount interest in many different types of litigation (and all of these situations are actual cases in which Federal Forensic Associates has provided examination, consultation and testimony).
With advances in technology, many documents that could not be analyzed five years ago are now possible sources of important information, such as the answers to questions relating to the method and time period of preparation. Lyter began his career as a forensic chemist for the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, National Laboratory Center in Rockville, Maryland.
The SET and SLRM measure certain ink aging parameters of ink that decrease as ink ages on paper. To date, the SET is the only ink aging method that has shown its reliability through outside proficiency testing using “blind” samples (outside proficiency tests in 1995, 2001, and 2011). Ink Availability Approach The second ink dating approach analyzes the chemical composition of inks on a contested document with the aim to determine whether these inks (as well as other materials used to produce the document – paper, inkjet printing ink, toner, stamp pad ink, etc.) were commercially available on or prior to the date appearing on the document. – The examination’s purpose is to assess whether the entries being compared were produced with the ink of the same composition or with different inks (pens). The order of execution of certain elements of a document Writing ink sequencing – Examining intersections (areas where two or more pen lines cross) to determine the order of writing (it may prove that a particular entry was added at a later time) Sequencing of indented impressions and writings – Examining intersections (areas where the visible ink lines cross the indentations) may determine the order of writing and thus prove that a particular entry was added at a later time.
Other ink entries are not necessary for comparison. Aginsky has developed the SET as a result of many years of research of the ink aging methodology developed and published by Dr. For example, if the questioned document’s date precedes the manufacturing date for the ink used to sign the document, it is established that the document could not have been signed on the date it bears. Such intra-comparisons of inks may reveal that the questioned entries were not written contemporaneously with the other entries in the file (document). – The examination’s purpose is to assess whether the use of various inks on the document(s) fits a pattern that is either consistent with the dates appearing on the document(s) or indicates preparation "at one time" (during a short period of time). Paper folds – It is often possible to determine whether an ink line that intersects a paper fold was written before or after the paper was folded.
The idea of getting manufacturer’s voluntary cooperation to incorporate these tags with their existing formulations was developed in the late 1960’s at the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms.